USES and planting techniques of sisal hemp

Release time:2020-09-04 09:08:22 Hits:40

USES and planting techniques of sisal hemp

Sisal is a world famous fiber plant with excellent quality of hard fiber. Sisal is characterized by toughness, corrosion resistance, alkali resistance and large tensile force, etc. It can be used as raw materials for making Marine ships' rope and cables, machine belts, various canvas, artificial silk, fishing nets, sacks and ropes. Plants contain steroidal saponins, which are important raw materials for pharmaceutical industry.

Sisal planting technique

1, the establishment of hemp garden and planting

Sisal planting technique

(1) The planning of Hemp garden. Hemp garden plan should adjust measures to local conditions. Leave a good gap between the small hemp garden and the small hemp garden. Keep the main road for each marijuana garden. In general, small hemp gardens should be 96×70 meters for easy management, with 3.5 meters of spacing; Hemp garden to 200 mu is appropriate, main road width is 5 meters, in order to facilitate machine farming and transportation. For low - injection to keep good drainage, prevent water caused by disease to occur.

(2) Remove the evil grass in the hemp garden. There are more weeds in the newly opened sisal garden. In general, weeds can be removed by the tractor plow. In the case of malignant weeds, such as aconite and thatch, it is necessary to kill them with glyphosate before clearing, so as to facilitate the management of the hemp garden.

(3) Clearing land. Newly opened hemp garden to adhere to a plough a rake, first with a large horsepower tractor for deep turning out the grass, the general depth of 20~25 cm is appropriate, to do not leak plough. After waiting for a lot to be turned in the sun adequately, reoccupy tractor harrow commonly 1 week above ground. Harrow to uniform, to the whole ground soil as a fine, and pay attention to the level of the ground to prevent water.

(4) Foot base fertilizer. Basal fertilizer is given priority to by acupoint application. Generally 1000 kg of pig excrement per mu, or 3000 kg of filter mud.

(5) Select large, strong, tender, disease-free seedlings. The standard of healthy and large seedlings is: 50~60 cm high leaves, thick hemp head, no disease. Incubation time: the bulb seedling is 8~10 months, the bud seedling is 18~20 months, the seedling weight is 3~4 kg.

(6) Reasonably close planting. The planting specifications of hemp garden are as follows :(41)×1 m, (3.81)× 1 m, (3.51)×1 m, (3.81)×0.9 m. In practice, it is better to adopt (3.81)×1 meter planting specification, that is, large row spacing is 3.8 meters, small row spacing is 1 meter, plant spacing is 1 meter, and 278 plants are planted in mu. This is beneficial to the secondary development of several sisal leaves. Also facilitate manual management and mechanical operations.

(7) To master the appropriate planting time and planting quality. Sisal can be planted from September to April of the same year, but it is generally better to plant from 2 to 4 months. Sisal roots and growth are fast. And in June to August planting, this season more rain, when the seedlings are susceptible to infection. The planting quality should be "stable, accurate, positive and even", that is, the seedlings should be planted shallowly, and the foundation should be about 10 cm into the mud. After supporting the seedlings with your hand, use your feet to compact the mud on both sides of the rhizome, so that the base fully contact the mud, rooting early. The seedlings should be replenished in time, not missing plants.

2. Management techniques

(1) Young anesthesia management

The general routine management of sisal is 3 years of young anesthesia and 12 years of leaf cutting. The quality of seedling stage management directly affects the yield of the whole cycle after cutting. Sisal plants in seedling stage grow fast and have poor disease resistance, and are easily affected by grass shortage and disease loss. Therefore, the management of young hemp should be based on scientific fertilization, strengthening management of upper soil, prevention of disease and elimination of grass.

A. Scientific fertilization

Young hemp fertilizer mainly with organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer auxiliary. Organic fertilizer generally has pig excrement, chicken excrement, filter mud, pond mud, garbage or vegetable seed bran, etc. According to the practice of Shanwei farm, pig and chicken excrement are the main, followed by garbage and mud filter. General young hemp within 3 years, each mu can use pig, chicken excrement 1000 kg, or filter mud, garbage 3000 kg, if this is not the same, can also be applied every year 0.25 kg vegetable bran. Inorganic fertilizer is used to supplement N, P, K, Ca, Mg and other elements needed in sisal growth. Therefore, the use of inorganic fertilizer should be based on the growth needs of upper soil and young hemp. Through a lot of scientific experiments, shanwei farm developed a special compound fertilizer adapted to the growth of mountain seedlings. Among them, 70 kg of special compound fertilizer, 25 kg of ammonium bicarbonate, 70 kg of special compound fertilizer and 50 kg of carbamine were applied to young hemp of 1~2 age every year. At the same time, 150 kg of lime and 0.9 kg of borax per mu per year (applied every other year). Fertilization time is generally better in April ~ May.

B. Strengthening management of upper soil.

Strengthening the management of upper soil can improve the soil granule structure and fertilize the soil, and promote the development of sisal root system to achieve the purpose of rapid growth and growth.

Intercropping: 1~2 age young hemp due to small hemp seedlings, large row spacing of the upper space is relatively wide, easy to grow grass, therefore, can be interplanted, generally with short bean crops, such as soybean, peanut is better. It can not only prevent overgrown weeds between rows, but also use the seedlings and poles of crops to improve soil fertility.

Intertillage: from December to February of each year, in combination with the winter Qing Yuan, the intertillage is carried out between the large rows of hemp fields with the medium tow. To keep loose soil and promote root growth.

Weeding and eliminating waste: Grass shortage is an adverse factor affecting the growth of young hemp. Except for the cultivation and eliminating waste in winter and spring, weeding and eliminating waste should be carried out in hemp garden every Year from June to August to ensure the growth of young hemp is not affected.

(2) Management of cutting hemp

A. Scientific fertilization

As a lot of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and other elements are taken away by leaf cutting every year, a certain amount of fertilizer must be added every year to meet the growth needs of sisal hemp. The variety and quantity of fertilizer is very important, less can not meet the growth needs, more will cause waste. According to the soil situation of Shanxu farm and the analysis of leaves over 20 years, the cutting hemp requires to apply 3,000 kg/mu of mud or garbage fertilizer, 90 kg of special compound fertilizer, 20 kg of carbamide, 150 kg of lime, and 0.9 kg of borax every year.

B. Reasonable leaf retention

At least 90 cm in sisal leaf blade. When the plant leaves reach about 100 pieces, they can be cut. If you cut a sisal and you have more leaves that will affect the yield of that year and less leaves that will affect the yield of the next year. All the leaves above the hemp head are retained, and all the leaves above the hemp head are cut off. Large hemp head can be left to 60~65 pieces, general hemp head leaves in 50~60 pieces.

C. Return the hemp residue to the fields

Hemp is a very good organic fertilizer, which contains all kinds of nutrients needed for sword numbness, and the amount of hemp is quite large, accounting for more than 90{bf} of the total weight of leaves. Practice has proved that the return of hemp slag to the field is an important measure for high and stable yield of sisal, which can be applied in ditch or hole. Ditches were applied in the drip line of sisal leaves and in the middle of two adjacent sisal plants.

Attention to the return of fresh hemp residue: usually in the sick area to play hemp can not directly return to the field, to add lime first, and then use sealed retting after 3 months, to avoid the infection of the bacteria with hemp residue. Open hemp ploughing is the same as young pipe.

3. Disease control

At present, the main diseases affecting sisal production in China are zebra stripe disease and stem rot disease. These two diseases are most common during the rainy season, where water accumulates and can spread through infected wounds. Adopt "prevention is given priority to, management is united in wedlock" prevention principle: choose to plant without disease nursery stock. In rainy days, try not to sprout seedlings. If it is really necessary for production, use 1000 times of methyl tobra body fluid or carbomycete fluid to disinfect the wound. Do well the drainage facilities in the hemp garden to prevent water accumulation in the hemp garden; Improve the quality of management, reasonable fertilization, improve the resistance of sword numbness body; Clean up the disease in time. Once the hemp garden is discovered, the diseased hemp shall be immediately removed, and it shall be piled up in a concentrated place far away from the hemp garden and burned or buried deep. The diseased acupoints shall be disinfected with lime, or with 1:1 Bordeaux mixture. We will do a good job in rotating crops in flax gardens. For hemp gardens with a low incidence of disease (5{bf}), rotation was performed for 1 year. In hemp gardens with a incidence of more than 50{bf}, the crop rotation was persisted for 2 years. During the processing season, the leprosy tablets in the sick area and the non-sick area should be processed separately, and the leprosy residue in the sick area should be treated before being used.